Activated carbon is a kind of microcrystalline carbon material, which is made of carbon material, which is black, with developed internal pore structure, large surface area and strong adsorption capacity. It is a commonly used adsorbent, catalyst or catalyst carrier, widely used in almost all national economic sectors and People's Daily life. Activated carbon classification - there are no more than 1000 kinds of activated carbon because of different source, manufacturing method, appearance shape and application situation.
First of all, according to the raw material source, can be divided into wood activated carbon (coconut shell activated carbon, apricot shell activated carbon, wood powder, charcoal, etc.), mineral raw materials for activated carbon (all kinds of coal and oil and their processed products as the raw material made of activated carbon) and other raw materials made of activated carbon (such as activated carbon made from waste rubber, waste plastic, etc).
Second, according to the manufacturing method, can be divided into: chemical method activated carbon (chemical carbon) and physical method activated carbon and chemistry - physical or physical - chemical method activated carbon.
Chemical method activated carbon is the process of heat treatment by mixing the carbon containing raw materials with certain chemicals. The method of producing activated carbon is called chemical method. The activated carbon produced by chemical method is also known as chemical activated carbon or chemical carbon.
Chemicals can be used as a chemical method also known as activator, activator of zinc chloride, calcium chloride, potassium carbonate, phosphoric acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium sulfide and sulfuric acid, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, boric acid and so on, all in all a lot of acid, alkali, salt can be used as activator, mainly from the performance and fuel economy of active carbon to consider what activator.
Generally, a chemical in the pore of carbon micropore, hole (that is, the hole diameter and hole wide at 1.5 nm pore) is developed, it is mainly used for liquid phase adsorption refining and adsorption of solvent recovery by gas (steam).
The chemical process of producing activated carbon is due to the importance of environmental protection and the possible presence of trace non-raw materials in the manufacturing process.
Physical activated carbon: taking coal as raw material to water vapor, carbon dioxide and air (mainly is oxygen) or their mixture (flue gas) as the activation of medium, at high temperatures (600 ~ 1000 ℃) method of preparing activated carbon is called physical method. The activated carbon produced by the physical method is called the physical activated carbon, also known as the physical carbon.
Generally speaking, the micropores of physical carbon (pore diameter or pore width less than 1.5nm) are developed, mainly used in gas phase adsorption or small molecular liquid phase adsorption.
Chemistry - physical or physical - chemical activated carbon.
While understanding the chemical and physical carbon, we should also mention chemistry - physical or physical - chemical activated carbon. The combination of different materials and different chemical and physical methods can be used to regulate the pore structure of activated carbon, so as to make many activated carbons with different properties. This chemical - physical or physical - chemical method is an active carbon preparation method which is very concerned by active carbon workers in the world for many years and years to come.
Again, divide by appearance.
Powdered activated carbon: activated carbon or powdery charcoal, commonly known as powdered activated carbon, is generally more than 90 percent through 80 target or less than 0.175mm. The powder charcoal is fast in use, and its adsorption capacity is fully used. With the development of separation technology and the appearance of certain application requirements, the particle size of powdery carbon has become more and more detailed, and some occasions have reached micron or even nanometer scale.
Granular activated carbon: activated carbon, which usually has a particle size greater than 0.175mm, is called activated carbon.
The activated carbon is divided into the following types:
Don't finalize the makings activated carbon: no finalize the design makings activated carbon by makings shape commonly raw material through carbonization, activation, and then broken screen points to the need to size, you can also use powdered activated carbon to join the appropriate binder properly processed.
Cylindrical activated carbon: cylindrical activated carbon, also known as cylindrical carbon, is generally made of powder materials and binder by mixing, extrusion, and carbonization, activation and other processes. It can also be extruded with powdered activated carbon and binder. The columnar carbon is solid and hollow, and the hollow columnar carbon is an artificial one or a number of regular holes in the columnar carbon.
Spherical activated carbon: spherical activated carbon is known as the spherical activated carbon, and its method is similar to that of cylindrical carbon, but it has a ball process. It can also be made by spraying granule, oxidation, carbonization and activation with liquid carbon raw materials, and it can be processed by using powdered activated carbon and binder. Spherical activated carbon also has solid and hollow spherical activated carbon.
Other shapes of activated carbon: in addition to the two major categories of powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon, and other shapes, such as activated carbon fiber and activated carbon fiber blanket, activated carbon cloth, honeycomb activated carbon and activated carbon plate and so on.
Third, according to the applications: prior to the above and activated carbon is widely used in almost all the departments of national economy and People's Daily lives, and because of that, according to the activated carbon applications, it is difficult to classify the problem is that the same kind of activated carbon can be applied to a variety of occasions, and certain occasions and can achieve the same goal with a variety of activated carbon. People are often used to obtain the understanding of activated carbon, so it is often in the activated carbon words like x * * * activated carbon is also used as the fuzzy classification method of activated carbon. Such as sugar activated carbon, injection activated carbon, MSG activated carbon, water activated carbon, etc.
Performance indicators of activated carbon.
The performance indexes of activated carbon products can be divided into physical performance index, chemical performance index and adsorption performance index. Three performance indexes play an important role in the selection and application of activated carbon.
The main physical performance indexes include: shape, appearance, specific surface area, pore volume, proportion, number of eyes, particle size, wear resistance and flotation rate, etc.
Main chemical performance indicators are: PH value, ash content, moisture, ignition, not carbon, sulfide, chloride, cyanide, sulfate, acid soluble content, gliadin content, contents of iron, zinc, lead, arsenic and calcium and magnesium content, heavy metal content, phosphate, etc.
Main adsorption performance indicators are: methylene blue adsorption value, the iodine adsorption value, phenol adsorption, carbon tetrachloride adsorption value, caramel adsorption, saturated adsorption value, quinine sulfate sulfur capacity, penetrating sulfur capacity, water capacity, chloroethane steam protection time, ABS, etc.